ABC

Action Research

Action research is when people reflect on and improve their own work and their own situations by tightly linking their reflection with action and making their experience public, not only to the other participants, but also to other persons interested in the work and the situation (Altrichter et al, 1991). Data are collected by the participants themselves, they participate in the decision making, power is shared democratically, and members collaborate. Reflection is a key characteristic of action research. The practitioner-researchers self-reflect, self-evaluate, and self-manage the research autonomously and responsibly. More concisely, McClutcheon & Jung (1990) define action research as the inquiry teachers undertake to understand and improve their own practice.

Collins, S. (2004). Ecology and ethics in participatory collaborative action research: An argument for the authentic participation of students in eduational research. Educational Action Research, 12(3), 347–362. https://doi.org/10.1080/09650790400200255

Action research (collaborative)

DuFour (2010), as cited by Juma, Lehtomäki and Naukkarinen (2017), defines CAR as the process by which teachers jointly observe their situation, plan to take informed action to ameliorate undesirable actions and then critically reflect in and on their action. In this way, they can turn their schools into professional learning communities as they improve their classroom practices with a focus on learning for all. (DuFour et al., 2010: 12) (p. 4)

Wakefield, S. (2019). A collaborative Action Research project within a data-driven culture: Improving teaching and learning through Social Constructivism in England. In F. Armstrong & D. Tsokova (Eds.), Action Research for Inclusive Education: Participation and Democracy in Teaching and Learning. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351048361-11

Action research (participatory)

Participatory Action Research has been defined by Brydon-Miller and Maguire as 'a systematic approach to personal, organisational and structural transformation . . . that places human selfdetermination, the development of critical consciousness and positive social change as central goals' (Brydon-Miller and Maguire, 2009: 80). (p. 5)

Wakefield, S. (2019). A collaborative Action Research project within a data-driven culture: Improving teaching and learning through Social Constructivism in England. In F. Armstrong & D. Tsokova (Eds.), Action Research for Inclusive Education: Participation and Democracy in Teaching and Learning. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351048361-11