Digital and visual materials that circulate in social media include photos, video, animated gifs, vines, images of words, and memes that combine both images and text and which, according to Shifman (2014), are ‘creative expressions through which cultural and political identities are communicated and negotiated’ (p. 15). Memes are noteworthy for their spreadability, as they are easily captured and shared among internet users. Memetic media, understood as aggregate texts that are collectively created, circulated, and transformed, become a part of public conversations that shape broader cultural debates (Milner, 2016). Memes are usually humorous, although some visual materials that include images and words go viral based on their ability to articulate commonly shared beliefs and ideas.

Hinzo, A. M., & Clark, L. S. (2019). Digital survivance and Trickster humor: Exploring visual and digital Indigenous epistemologies in the #NoDAPL movement. Information, Communication & Society, 22(6), 791–807.