Brookhart, S. M. (2003). Developing Measurement Theory for Classroom Assessment Purposes and Uses. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 22(4), 5–12. https://doi.org/10/dj7bxr
In many fields of inquiry, the need for new theoretical developments is often best seen in areas of strain, and strain is apparent in several areas in which the conventions of measurement theory not quite "fit" classroom assessment. Three areas of do strain are analyzed in order to suggest how theoretical development might focus directly on information quality in the classroom assessment context. article describes the conThis text dependence of classroom assessment, its inextricable relationship instruction, and its simultaneous formative and with summative functions. Thus a case is made for new theoretical developments in the area of measurement in the classroom. (p. 5)
Keywords: classroom assessment, reliability, validity (p. 5)
The difference between decontextualized, one-time measurement done by outsiders and the ongoing, contextualized measurement done with a teacher changes teh nature of the measure.
This is a fundamental difference between classroom and large-scale assessment where the major function of the assessment is to provide someone besides the student with interpretable information.
Formative - using evaluation in the development or improvement of some educational process
Summative - using evaluation in decision-making about the end result of an educational process
Student is always at the centre of the process b/c only the student can act to improve performance. The teacher cannot learn for the student.
Summative assessment requires that teachers (or other assessors) become members of a community of practice, while formative assessment requires that the learners become members of the
samecommunity of practice (Wiliam, 1998)
Wiliam, D. (1998, September) Enculturating learners into communities of practice: Raising achievement through classroom assessment. Paper presented at the European Conference for Educational Research, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Table 1. (P. 9)
|Concepts in Large-Scale Assessment||Concepts in Classroom Assessment|
|Validity: The measure is external to the inferences made and actions taken.
- Students are 'subjects' upon whom observations are made.
- The validity goal is a meaningful inference about student performance and/or effective use of that information fro a specified purpose.
|Validity: Inferences made and actions taken are internal to the measurement process.
- Students are observers jointly with teachers; 'those measured' make the inferences and take the actions in the formative assessment process.
Students' awareness of and benefit from assessment information are part of the 'information' itself.
- The validity goal is an understanding of how students' work compares to 'ideal' work (as defined in the learning objectives) and/or effective use of that information for further learning.
|Validity: The measurement context is construct-irrelevant
- Content specifications describe a domain.
- Administration can be standardized.
Scores can be equated or linked across contexts and forms of assessment.
|Validity: The measurement context is construct-relevant.
Assessment is part of instruction. A good assessment is an 'episode of genuine learning'
- Content specifications reflect both the domain (learning objectives) and instructions (modes, activities)
- Teacher beliefs, teacher instructional practices, and teacher understanding of both the subject matter and students (including cultural and linguistic differences) are relevant validity concerns
|Reliability is consistency over irrelevant factors
- Occassions, time, items, and/or tasks are facets of error variance.
- The reliability goal is stable ranking of students on a score scale (NRT) or stable categorization of students on an achievement continuum (CRT)
|Reliability is sufficiency of information.
- The reliability goal is stable information about the gap between students' work and 'ideal' work as defined in students' and teachers' learning objectives