Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the Oppressed: 50th Anniversary Edition. Bloomsbury Academic.
Narration (with the teacher as narrator) leads students to memorize mechanically the narrated content. Worse yet, it turns them into "containers", into "receptacles" to be "filled" by the teacher. The more completely she fills the receptacles, the better a teacher she is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are. (p. 72)
apart from inquiry, apart from the praxis, individuals cannot be truly human. Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other. (p. 72)
education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students. This solution is not (nor can it be) found in the banking concept. On the contrary, banking education maintains and even stimulates the contradiction through the following attitudes and practices, which mirror oppressive society as a whole: a. the teacher teaches and the students are taught b. the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing; c. the teacher thinks and the students are thought about; d. the teacher talks and the students listen--meekly; e. the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined; f. the teacher chooses and enforces his choice, and the students comply; g. the teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher; h. the teacher chooses the program content and the students (who were not consulted) adapt to it; i. the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge with his or her own professional authority, which she and he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students; j. the teacher is the Subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects. (p. 73)
The solution is not to integrate them (the oppressed) into the structure of oppression, but to transform that structure so that they become "beings for themselves". (p. 74)
But the humanist, revolutionary educator cannot wait for this possibility to materialize (the realization that the banking model of education is irreconcilable with their vocation to become more fully human). From the outset, her efforts must coincide with those of the students to engage in critical thinking and the quest for mutual humanization. His efforts must be imbued with a profound trust in people and their creative power. To achieve this, they must be partners of the students in their relations with them. (p. 75)
The banking model of education, with students as objects of the teacher's knowledge-pushing activities, is often depicted in modern parlance as the 'sage on the stage' model. The lecture is an easy target to skewer because it seems to epitomize the banking model.
In response, some educators who presume themselves to be progressing beyond the 'sage on the stage' model have adopted the 'guide on the side' model, which has always been a stone in my shoe that I couldn't quite find to remove. The quote above from Freire nails the problem.
Sages on stages and guides on sides are the same. They both rely on the banking model. They both presume that the teacher is the expert who is tasked with 'educating' the student, the ignorant novice who doesn't recognize their humanity in Hegel's Master-Slave Dialectic.
Only when teachers and students are trusting/trusted partners in humanizing each other have they moved beyond the banking model.
Liberating education consists in acts of cognition, not transferrals of information. (p. 79)